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Aug 15th 2022
The Relationship Between Cannabis, Menstruation & Reproductive Health

Those who have a uterus will agree that the overall reproductive system is complicated and can present issues for one’s health in various ways.

Cannabis has been used as a support for reproductive health issues for centuries. In the cannabis industry’s lore, people love acknowledging that Queen Victoria was prescribed cannabis to treat her severe menstrual cramps by her physician William O’Shaughnessy, who wrote about it in 1840 before cannabis was prohibited.

How does cannabis affect the female reproductive system? Does it play a role in regulating menstruation, fertility, or in the treatment of conditions within the reproductive system? At Compassionate Clinics of America, we want to equip those with a uterus with information that helps them understand the connection between cannabis and reproductive, physical, and mental health when considering a medical cannabis certification.

Please note that for the purposes of this article, at times we may use “women”, “woman”, or “female” to describe reproductive health issues, with the acknowledgement and respect that not all with a uterus are female identifying.

The Endocannabinoid System (ECS) and Reproduction

We have shown in our past articles how important the understanding of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) is for the link between cannabis and health.

As we’ve described before, the ECS exists in the bodies of all mammals, and acts as a regulator of all bodily systems, including, but not limited to those that regulate sleep, mood, appetite, memory, and reproduction, working to bring the body into balance or homeostasis. As cannabis researcher Dr. Ethan Russo describes it, the ECS is as “a key mediator of physiological homeostasis, thus ensuring that various bodily systems function within tight parameters with neither a deficiency nor excess of activity”.

The ECS is made of both CB1 and CB2 receptors, placed throughout the body to “receive” cannabinoids as they’re administered through cannabis medicine.

Studies into the ECS have shown that there is the presence of CB1 receptors in the brain as well as in peripheral organs like the heart, spleen, and endocrine glands as well as in parts of the male and female reproductive systems and the urinary tract, including the ovaries, uterus, testis, prostate, and placenta.

With this discovery, more research is beginning to emerge about how cannabinoids may affect reproductive health or the symptoms of many diseases and conditions affecting those with a uterus.

Overview of Reproductive Health Issues

For those with a uterus, various complications can arise in comparison to those without, with common conditions and diseases showing up within the uterus or other reproductive organs. Such conditions include endometriosis, Premenstrual syndrome (PMS), dysmenorrhea (painful cramping), and Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Some women are also embracing cannabis as a way to advance sexual health, manage the symptoms of menopause, or even using CBD as one means to increase fertility.

Cannabis and Endometriosis

Endometriosis affects approximately 1 in 10 with a female reproductive system, but this number is likely low as it’s one of the most underdiagnosed women’s health conditions.
Endometriosis an often-painful disorder in which tissue similar to the tissue that normally lines the inside of the uterus — the endometrium — grows outside the uterus. Endometriosis can cause mild to severe pain, especially during menstrual periods, and there is a link between the condition and difficulties with fertility.

A 2019 study surveyed 137 endometriosis patients about their experience with cannabis for management of endometriosis and pelvic pain symptoms. Not only was it found that over three-quarters of women surveyed used cannabinoids for endometriosis pain, but they also self-reported it to be very to extremely effective in pain management. The same year, 484 Australian women with endometriosis were surveyed, with the study also finding that cannabinoids were widely used for pain, and both cannabis and hemp/CBD oil were the most highly rated in terms of self-reported effectiveness.

Cannabis and Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)

Premenstrual Syndrome, or PMS is something that can’t be denied once someone’s monthly visitor is due to arrive. Cannabis can help in numerous ways to take the edge off the symptoms that occur with PMS. It’s estimated that 3 in 4 of those who menstruate report symptoms of PMS.

Millions are turning to cannabis before prescriptions or over-the-counter remedies to help relieve PMS. Studies are examining how cannabis can be used for various PMS symptoms, including relieving breast pain through cannabis’ anti-inflammatory effects, eliminating the headaches that accompany one’s period, and helping to promote mood stabilization with the right balance of cannabinoids and terpenes.

Cannabis and Dysmenorrhea

Dysmenorrhea is the medical term for painful menstrual periods which are caused by uterine contractions, more commonly known as menstrual cramps.

Primary dysmenorrhea is used to describe recurrent pain, while secondary dysmenorrhea describes pain that stems from reproductive system disorders.

There is still more research that needs to be done on the link between cannabis and dysmenorrhea or painful cramps, but with the rise in popularity of CBD specifically, there is optimism about how cannabinoids affect cramps. Dr. Julie Holland, a psychopharmacology specialist proposes that CBD can help with increased feelings of anxiety around the period and THC can help with mood swings, irritability, and low resilience (your ability to handle stress). Both THC and CBD can help relax the uterine muscle where cramps occur, and alleviate many PMS symptoms.

Cannabinoids and PCOS

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complicated reproductive health disorder involving infrequent, irregular, or prolonged menstrual periods, and often excess male hormone (androgen) levels due to the follicles within the ovaries failing to release eggs causing a hormone imbalance.

Although this is an under-researched condition as it pertains to cannabinoid medicine and research, it has been stated that conditions like PCOS may be due to a deregulation or imbalance of cannabinoids or a deficiency of endocannabinoids.

“Endocannabinoid deficiency” was a term coined by the aforementioned Dr. Ethan Russo and is now being linked to more conditions. Those with endocannabinoid deficiency do not have enough endogenous cannabinoids within their body, thus, leading many of their systems to experience imbalance.

Cannabis medicine is a way to treat endocannabinoid deficiency, and more research is being developed examining how cannabinoids, the endocannabinoid system, and women’s reproductive health issues are connected.

Cannabis and Fertility

Interestingly, cannabinoid receptors have been found in sperm and the female reproductive tract, and is thus believed to boost ovarian function.

While research again is very limited on this, some with fertility issues are turning to CBD as a natural way to boost fertility with minimal negative side effects.

Cannabis and Menopause

Menopause occurs 12 months after the last period, usually later in life. It is characterized by many uncomfortable symptoms as the body makes this important hormonal shift.

As we now know, the endocannabinoid system is involved in ensuring that various bodily systems function within tight parameters with neither a deficiency nor excess of activity. This includes being involved in mood regulation, the functioning of the immune system, pain management, sleep, memory, fertility and reproduction, and temperature regulation, all or many of which undergo changes during menopause.

As such, using cannabis medicine may help those going through menopause bring balance or homeostasis to the body as it experience the symptoms of this period of life and health.

Explore Cannabis Medicine for Reproductive Health

While research is still being developed on the specific ways that cannabis can affect reproductive health for those with a uterus, at Compassionate Clinics of America, we embrace the role of cannabis in homeostasis, which is a core requirement of reproductive health.

If you live in Illinois, Pennsylvania, Oklahoma, or Missouri and are experiencing difficult PMS symptoms, painful menstrual cramps, have a diagnosis for endometriosis or PCOS, and working through fertility issues, or are going through menopause, consider getting your medical cannabis certification with Compassionate Clinics of America. Stay tuned to our blog as we continue to release education on how cannabis is helping millions of people reimagine healthcare.

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